What is the domain name system (DNS)?
The unique address on the Internet, can be found on the server and calculator, is only the IP address: Bsp. IPv4 address: 220.127.116.11.
This address have the disadvantage, that she hard noticeably and only flat hierarchical structures.
To solve the problem the DNS addresses have been introduced (Domains), Example: www.Google.de.
These addresses are the IP addresses of the server mapped through domain server name. This means, If you type in the address www.google.de in the browser a DNS lookup request is executed first, determining the IP address. This may be the dig-Command under Ubuntu be traced.
The dig command on Ubuntu
dig www.google.de ; <<>> DiG 9.8.1-P1 <<>> www.google.de ;; global options: +cmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 59072 ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 3, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;www.google.de. IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION: www.google.de. 5 IN A 18.104.22.168 www.google.de. 5 IN A 22.214.171.124 www.google.de. 5 IN A 126.96.36.199 ;; Query time: 33 msec ;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1) ;; WHEN: Wed Feb 6 01:56:54 2013 ;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 79
The interesting part of the response is:
www.google.de. 5 IN A 188.8.131.52 www.google.de. 5 IN A 184.108.40.206 www.google.de. 5 IN A 220.127.116.11
This part States, that the domain www.google.de under 3 IP addresses can be reached: 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199.
That is to say, If you type the addresses in the browser, to get on the Web site Google.de:
188.8.131.52 (IP address has been changed by Google).
The A stands for IPv4 address. If you want to know the IPv6 address, can you extend the call parameter AAAA:
dig www.google.de AAAA ... ;; ANSWER SECTION: www.google.de. 5 IN AAAA 2a00:1450:4013:c00::5e ...
The IN stands for Internet in contrast to the local network.
The 5 stands for time to live (TTL) -How long the query should be cached in ms.
The point behind google.de. stands for an absolute URL, d.h. This is in contrast to a relative URL to add behind it no longer.
Interesting is also the call:
dig www.abc.com ... ;; ANSWER SECTION: www.abc.com. 5 IN CNAME abc.com. abc.com. 5 IN A 184.108.40.206 ...
This tells a, that the domain under a different name is also available (Common name) and although abc.com and then lists the IP address of this domain.
More to dig there here.
DNS – Basics with dig – Part1